锂电池知识

缩略语

18650             Li-ion cylindrical cell format measuring 18mm times 65mm

A                    Ampere (electrical)

AC                  Alternating current

ADAC            Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil-Club (German automobile club)

AFC                Alkaline fuel cell

AGM              Absorbent Glass Mat (battery)

AGV               Automatic Guided Vehicle

Ah                  Ampere-hour

APU                Auxiliary Power Unit

BAPCO           Business Applications Performance Corporation

Bar                 Unit ofpressure; 1 bar = 100kPa; 1 bar = 14.503psi

bbl                  Measurements of liquid, 1 barrel = 42 US gallons (35 Imperial gallons), 159 liters

BCG                The Boston Consulting Group

BCI                 Battery Council International

BMS               Battery management system

BMW              Bavarian Engine Works (Bayerische Motoren Werke)

BTU                British Thermal Unit; 1 BTU = 1,054 joules; 1 BTU = 0.29Wh

C                     Celsius, Centigrade (temperature)

cal                  Calorie; 1cal = 4.18 joules; 1cal = 4.18 watt/s; 1,000 joules = 0.277Wh

CARB            California Air Resources Board

CCA                Cold cranking amps at –18°C (0°F). The norms differ as follows:

BCI discharges battery at CCA-rate for 30s; battery at or above 7.2V passes

IEC discharges battery at CCA-rate for 60s; battery at or above 8.4V passes

DIN discharges battery at CCA-rate for 30s and 150s; battery at or above 9V and 6V respectively passes

CCCV             Constant current constant voltage (charge method)

CCV                Closed circuit voltage (battery under charge or discharge)

CDMA            Code Division Multiple Access (cell phones)

CEC                Certificate of Equivalent Competency (International regulations)

CID                 Circuit interrupt device

CIPA               Camera and Imaging Products Association

CL                   Current limiting (as in charging a battery)

CNG                Compressed natural gas

CNT                Carbon nanotube

CPU                Central processing unit

Co                   Cobalt (metal)

COC                Certificate of Competency

CO2                 Carbon dioxide

CPR                Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

C-rate             Discharge rate of a battery

DC                   Direct current

DGP                Dangerous Goods Panel

DIN                 Deutsches Institut für Normung (German Institute for Standardization)

DLC                Double-layer capacitor

DMFC             Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

DoD                 Depth of discharge

DOE                Department of Energy (US)

DOT                 Department of Transportation (US)

DSP                 Digital signal processor

dT/dt                Delta Temperature over delta time (charge method)

EBM                Electronic battery monitor

ect.                 Et cetera. Latin: And so forth

EDTA              Crystalline acid

EIS                  Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

ELC                 Equivalent lithium content

EMF                Electromagnetic field

EMF                Electromotive force

EPA                Environmental Protection Agency (US)

EV                   Electric vehicle

F                      Fahrenheit (temperature)

f                      Farad (unit of capacitance)

FAA                Federal Aviation Administration

FC                   Fuel cell

FCVT              FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies (US Department of Energy)

Foot/’             Foot (dimension) 1’= 12”; 1’ = 0.3048m; 1’times 3.28 = 1m

g                     Gram; 1g = 0.035oz; 1g times 28.35 = 1oz

GSM               Global System for Mobile Communications (cell phones)

h                     Hour (time)

HEV                Hybrid electric vehicle

hp                   Horsepower (power) 1hp = 745.7 watts

Hz                   Hertz (electrical frequency)

I                       Current(electrical)

i.e.                  Id est. Latin: That is

IATA               International Air Transport Association

IC                    Integrated circuit (chip)

IC                    Internal combustion (engine)

ICAO              International Civil Aviation Organization

IEC                 International Electrochemical Commission

Inch/“             Inch; 1”= 25.4mm; 1” = 0.0254 meter; 1”times 39.3 = 1m

IPF                  Interfacial protective film

IPP                  IECaircraft battery rating (0.3/15s power discharge)

IPR                  Aircraft battery rating according to IEC (15s power discharge)

IS                     Intrinsic safety (used on batteries)

J                      Joule, 1J = 1A at 1V for 1s = 1 watt/s; 1J = 0.238calorie/s

kg                    Kilogram; 1kg = 0.45 pound; 1kg times 2.2 = 1 pound

kJ                    Kilo-Joule; 1kJ = 0.277Wh

km                   Kilometer; 1km = 0.621 miles; 1km times 1.60 = 1 mile

kN                    Kilo-Newton (law of motion) 1N = 1kg m/s2

kPa                  Kilo-Pascal (pressure); 1kPa = 0.01 bar; 1kPa = 0.145psi

kW                  Kilowatt (electrical energy); 1kWh = 3.6MJ; 1MJ = 860kcal = 238cal/s

kWh                Kilowatt-hour (electrical power)

L                      Inductance (electrical coil)

lb                     Pound (weight, from Roman libra) 1 lb times 0.45 = 1kg

LCD                Liquid crystal display

LCO                Lithium cobalt oxide

LED                Light emitting diode

LFP                 Lithium-iron-phosphate

LFPT               Low frequency pulse train (method to test a battery)

LiCoO2            Lithium-ion-cobalt-oxide

LiFePO4          Lithium-iron-phosphate-oxide

Li-ion               Lithium-ion battery (short form)

LiMn2O4          Lithium-ion-manganese-oxide

LiNiCoAlO2     Lithium-ion-nickel-cobalt-aluminum-oxide

LiNiMnCoO2   Lithium-on-nickel-manganese-cobalt-oxide

Li5Ti5O13       Lithium-titanate-oxide

L/km                Liter per kilometer

LMO                Lithium-manganese-oxide

LTO                 Lithium-titanate

m                     Meter (dimension) 1m = 3.28 feet; 1m times 0.30 = 1 foot

mAh                Milliampere-hours

MCFC              Molten carbonate fuel cell

Microfarad [µF]     Capacitor rating, one-millionth 10-6 of a farad)

Min                 Minute (time)

mm                  Millimeter (dimension) 1mm = 0.039”; 1mm times 25.4 = 1”

Mn                  Manganese(chemical element used in batteries)

mpa                 Mega-Pascall unit of pressure

Mpg                Miles per gallon

ms                   Millisecond, one-thousand of a second (10-3).

MW                 Megawatt (power)

N                      Newton (law of motion) 1N = 1kg m/s2 (force required to accelerate 1kg at 1m/s)

NaS                 Sodium-sulfur (battery)

NASA              National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NCA                Lithium-ion battery with nickel, cobalt, aluminum cathode

NCV                Net calorific value (1 food calorie = 1.16 watt-hour)

NDV                Negative delta V (full-charge detection)

NG                   Natural gas, consumption measured in joules (1,000 joules = 0.277Wh)

NiCd                Nickel-cadmium (battery)

NiFe               Nickel-iron (battery)

NiH                 Nickel-hydrogen battery

NiMH              Nickel-metal-hydride (battery)

NiZn                Nickel-zinc (battery)

NMC               Lithium-ion with nickel, manganese, cobalt cathode

NRC               National Research Council

NTC                Negative temperature coefficient

OCV                Open circuit voltage

OEM               Original equipment manufacturer

Oz                    Ounce; 1 oz = 28 grams; 1 oz times 0.035 = 1 gram

PAFC              Phosphoric acid fuel cell

PC                   Personal computer

PEM                 Proton exchange membrane (fuel cell), also PEMFC

PEMFC            Proton exchange membrane fuel cell, also PEM

pf                     Pico-farad (capacitor rating, one-trillionth 10-12 of a farad)

pf                     Power factor (ratio of real power to the apparent power on AC)

PHEV              Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

PRBA              Portable rechargeable battery Association

psi                   Pound per square inch (pressure) 1psi = 0.145kPa; 1psi times 6.89 = 1kPa

PTC                 Positive temperature coefficient

PTC                 Over-voltage protection (batteries, motors, speakers)

QA                   Quality assurance

Qi                    Standard on inductive charging by Wireless Power Consortium (WPC)

Q-Mag™        Quantum magnetic battery analysis (Cadex trademark)

R                     Resistor (electrical)

RBRC             Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation

RC                   Remote control (hobbyist)

RC                   Reserve capacity of starter battery. Conversion formula:. RC divided by 2 plus 16 = Ah

R&D                Research and development

RPM               Revolution per minute

s                      Second (time)

SAE                 Society of Automotive Engineers, founded early in 1900 by US auto manufacturers

SBS                 Smart Battery System

SEI                  Solid electrolyte interphase (Li-ion)

SG                   Specific gravity (acid density of electrolyte)

SLA                 Sealed lead acid (battery)

SLI                  Starter-light-ignition (battery), also knows as starter battery

SMBus           System Management Bus (smart battery)

SoC                 State-of-charge

SoF                  State-of-function

SOFC              Solid oxide fuel cell

SoH                 State-of-health

UL                    United Laboratories (product safety testing and certification)

UPS                 Uninterruptible power supply

USB                 Universal Serial Bus (data)

V                      Voltage (electrical)

VA                   Volt-ampere (similar to watt with true current flow in a reactive load)

VAC                Voltage with alternating current (grid)

VL                   Voltage limiting (as in charging a battery)

VRLA              Valve regulated lead acid (battery)

W                     Watt (electrical energy; voltage times current = watts)

Wh                   Watt-hour (electrical power; watts times h = Wh); 1Wh = 860 cal/h = 0.238cal/s

Wh/kg             Watt-hour per kilogram (measurement of specific energy)

Wh/km            Watt-hour per kilometer

Wh/l                 Watt-hour per litter (measured in energy density)

Wi-Fi               Wireless fidelity (network)

W/kg               Watt per kilogram (measurement of specific power)

WPC               Wireless Power Consortium

WW                World War

Z                      Impedance (reactance-based resistance, frequency dependent)


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